The world we know of today, dwells in the teeming abode of technology and advancements in science. The world is moving at a fast pace with man realizing his scientific temper in greater depths with each passing blink of time. But it should never be forgotten that the present picture of the world was forever transformed by the contributions of great personalities who made this reality possible. What started with simple formulations and postulates developed into complex mathematical rules and developing new methods. From the philosophers and masterminds of ancient Greece to present day scientists in every corner of the world, we have seen inexplicable intellectual abilities define the very course of human life and existence. They have worked for the welfare of mankind with their research and made our modern lives easier. Scientists have pursued research in various fields across the world. The following are some of the scientists commemorated all over the world for their contributions that will remain engraved in the sands of time forever.
Born in Syracuse, Greece he was a pioneer in heralding the advent of the age of reason and logic. Best known for his theory on buoyancy, he is the source of inspiration of modern day engineering while he designed a litany of mechanical systems like the screw and lever that find wide range applications in our machinery and implements, thus giving paving way to the rise of mechanical engineering. It is believed that he helped the King to find that his crown was not pure gold but adulterated, and went out crying “Eureka” in the streets. His contributions to maths and hydro-statics were recognized years later where their applications were used in industry. He was sadly killed in a battle.
Galileo was an Italian physicist, mathematicians, astronomer and philosopher. Called upon as the ‘Father of Science’, Galileo played a significant role in Scientific Revolution. His publications were mainly aimed at astronomical observations. He is widely known to have propagated ideas of inductive reasoning. Apart from observing phase shifts of Venus, he also observed Saturn and Neptune, and sunspots using his own version of the telescope. He took up learning Mathematics and designed the military compass. He was the first to study the laws of motion and added that nature is governed by mathematical laws. However he was convicted of heresy by the Orthodox Church which led to his imprisonment until his death in 1642.
8. Isaac Newton
Regarded as the greatest scientist ever born, Isaac Newton is remembered for the infamous apple incident and the modern day cliche “Every action has an equal and opposite reaction”. Called upon as the Father of Classical Mechanics, his experiments led to the famous 3 laws of motion. Isaac Newton was a man whose vision touched versatile levels. Be it Mechanics, Optics, or Mathematics; Newton developed each of these fields to a new dimension. Discovering calculus, the key element to all mathematical treatments of physical data, he gave birth to a new age of Science and Technology. There practically is no physics without the mention of Newton. He framed the theory of gravitation. He was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge. Newton’s birth in the year of death of Galileo is often termed as a mysterious coincidence.
7. Michael Faraday
The ‘Father of Electromagnetism’, Faraday played a pivotal role in the development of electricity and magnetism and revealed to the world that these physical phenomena are inter-related. Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in the simplest of sorts. His principal discoveries are the electromagnetic induction and electrolysis. It was his efforts that were influential in bringing electricity as a key element to all modern day electric appliances and gadgets. He was very keen on education and delivered public lectures. Even with such minimal formal education, he became one of the most renowned scientists the world has ever known of.
6. James Maxwell
Known for unifying the concepts of electricity, magnetism and optics through a set of equation, now known as the Maxwell equations, he showed that they are all a fundamental concept of electromagnetism. He was a theoretical scientist known for developing the first colour photograph and also worked on rigid body mechanics. He laid the foundation for special relativity and quantum mechanics and paved way for the development of modern physics.
5. Thomas Edison
Edison was born in Ohio, USA. With more than 1000 patents to his name, he is best known for his works on phonograph and the practical electric bulb that soon caught global attention. Having faced hardships since childhood, he was educated by his mother and is referred as a pioneer of industrial technology by building the electric power house that worked on DC. He is also known for his strong opposing of AC current which Tesla found to be much more useful and efficient. His phonograph sound recording came as a sudden surprise that people called him the “Wizard of Menlo Park”. He was one of the most prolific inventors, with patents ranging across a wide variety of fields in daily life use.
4. Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American scientist and inventor. Widely remembered for his contributions to electrical engineering, chiefly the AC power supply conventions, he patented the AC induction motor and transformer. He was also involved in the invention of radio communication. Tesla’s contribution to the development of AC has the source of all major power supply has redefined industrial outputs and factory setup. He is also known for high voltage high frequency experiments and X ray experiments. The modern power supply systems owe a lot to Tesla’s brilliance in electrical engineering
3. Albert Einstein
Synonymous with the word genius, he formulated the theory of special relativity, one of the twin planks of modern physics, the other being quantum mechanics. He derived the famous equation E =mc2 This eventually led to the Manhattan Project and the working on atomic bomb. He received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his work on photoelectric work. He developed the concept of light being a cluster of photons, thus discarding Newton’s corpuscular theory and showed that Newton’s laws failed at the atomic level. He is also known for Brownian motion and Bose-Einstein Condensate. He was against rote learning since childhood that led to his rustication from school. He was exceptional at Mathematics and Physics and developed the theory of quantum mechanics and subatomic particles.
2. Neils Bohr
Neils Bohr was a Danish physicist who developed the atomic model that to this day has explained various phenomena of sub-atomic particles. His model of an atom was the best one proposed that covered all major aspects, making some important postulates. He received the Nobel Prize in the year 1922 in this regard apart from having worked on quantum mechanics. He proposed that electrons revolve in energy levels that was important in understanding various effects. He was the one to develop an analogy of electrons revolving around nucleus with the solar system. His theory was brilliant that it could be applied to all elements in the Periodic Table and thus served as an important step in advancements in Chemistry and Molecular Sciences.
1. Marie Curie
A Polish physicist and chemist, she is universally remembered for her pioneering work in radioactivity. She was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields and the only person to win in multiple sciences. In 1903 she received the Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and in 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She discovered plutonium and radium and performed extensive research on radioactivity. She proposed a theory of radioactivity and also a method of segregating radioactive isotopes. She is seen as a symbol of women empowerment in the field of science with her awe-inspiring achievements and breakthroughs. Sadly she died of anemia brought on by years of exposure to radiation through her work and research.