The human body can be afflicted by a number of diseases which based on their origin, can be categorized into four types- pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease. The most common, out of all these diseases, are pathogenic diseases which are infectious and are caused by pathogenic microbial agents including viruses, bacteria, protozoans etc. While these diseases have become quite prevailent in the recent times due to intake of adulterated food, environment conditions and weakened immunity systems, some other genetic and lifestyle diseases are also becoming rampant day by day. Here, I have compiled a list of the 10 most common ailments that concern today’s generation.
10. Diabetes Mellitus
Our body generates a polypeptide hormone called “insulin” which functions in regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats and thus lowers blood sugar levels. During the condition of Diabetes, the pancreas ceases producing enough insulin or the cells no longer respond to the insulin produced. And the consequence is high blood sugar level. This can be of two types- type 1 and type 2. The type 1 is partly inherited and then triggered by various infections. However the type 2 is primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics. Frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger are some illustrious symptoms. Diabetes being a chronic disease, its patients are enforced to take lifelong medication, dietetic support and sensible exercises.
9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
Hypertension or more commonly called High blood pressure is a chronic disease in which the blood pressure in the blood vessels is elevated. As a result, the heart needs to struggle more than normal to ensure proper blood circulation in the whole body. Contrary to popular belief, hypertension occurs quite commonly in children and adolescents and should not be overlooked as it is associated with long term health issues. By doing minor lifestyle modifications, hypertension can be prevented, like consuming low sodium diet, diet rich in fruits and vegetables, doing regular aerobic exercises, maintaining normal body weight and limiting alcohol consumption.
We have become quite familiar with this lately, thanks to the various “No Smoking” campaigns worldwide trying to curb the use of tobacco products. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease which influences our respiratory system severely. Coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath are some of its common symptoms. Records suggest that in year 2011, around the globe, 235-300 million people were diagnosed with asthma and 250,000 cases resulted in death. Sounds quite horrific. Whereas air pollution, allergies, and environmental chemicals are some components causing asthma, a family history is also a high risk factor. Till now there is no cure for asthma, but identifying the trigger and eliminating exposure to it is recommended. Also overall exercise is beneficial.
As the pace of life is increasing, the standard of living is also increasing but the mental health of people is alarmingly decreasing. Mental or psychological issues which were considered to be taboo a decade ago are becoming more common in this modern era. Depression is the most heard of psychological problem these days. It is a state of low mood where person feels sad, unhappy and miserable. Depression cannot always be termed as a psychiatric disorder but is sometimes a normal reaction to certain life events. A person in depression tends to lose interest in activities that once used to excite him/her. For its treatment sometimes no treatment is the best way out as time heals the pain and brings about the desire of living in the person back. But in other cases counselling and psychiatric help is needed.
Eczema is a common skin disease which involves chronic inflammation of the skin. The visible symptoms for it are redness, itchiness or dryness, crusting, flaking, cracking or blistering of skin. It can be extremely painful and can keep you awake for many nights. The actual cause of eczema is not yet known but both genetic and environmental conditions are surmised to be causing it. There is no particular diagnosis for this ailment and it depends upon the patient’s history and physical examination of the inflamed area. However in some cases skin biopsy is done and has been proved to be effective.
Many people mistake dandruff with a simple dry scalp. But that is not the case. Dandruff is the shedding of dead skin cells that is visible as skin flakes. Shedding of skin layer is a normal process but in some cases it becomes a disturbing situation where the skin cells mature and fall off in 2-7 days unlike a month for people with a healthy scalp. At the post pubertal age, every second person faces this problem which also affects the self-esteem of these people. Though there is no sure shot cure for dandruff, Anti-Dandruff shampoos have become a hit and are effective too. One can also go for natural remedies like Neem, Black pepper or egg oil.
4. Tooth Decay
Going to a dentist is what we all dread. But viewing the increasing dental health problem, dentists visits have become more of a routine. And you cannot blame it on the chocolates every time. Tooth decay, also called Dental Carries or more commonly a cavity is an infection which is bacterial in origin. A cavity demineralises and destructs the hard tissue on the tooth surface. In simple terms, the food breaks down to glucose and similar units, in presence of which bacteria produces acid that is harmful for our teeth. The simplest preventive measure for tooth decay is using toothpaste regularly which helps in maintaining the pH of the mouth and prohibits the acid action from causing harm to our teeth.
3. Burning Stomach
Did you know our stomach actually has Hydrochloric Acid? The one you are asked to be careful with in chemistry lab. It plays a crucial role in digestion of food. But excessive acid causes a burning sensation which can be severely painful and discomforting. Eating too quickly or without chewing properly, lying down immediately after eating or simply from eating certain foods, one can have acidity. To cure this ailment, many antacids are available in the market and you can easily get one from a chemist store. Eating non citrus fruits and keeping your water intake good can keep you away from this acid distress.
2. Sore Throat
As I start writing about this one, I’m struggling to regain my voice. Sore throats can be pretty annoying no? A sore throat is referred to a pain or irritation in throat caused due to inflammation of throat. An acute viral is the most common reason of this ailment or even an acid reflux can root the throat to become sore. Doctors usually recommend analgesics like a paracetemol for curing sore throats but gargling with salty warm water and resting the voice is also said to be effective.
1. Common Cold
The word “common” over here can suggest the frequency of this ailment which is a viral infectious disease and can be caused by over 200 viruses, rhinovirus being the primary source of them all. The common cold is an upper respiratory tract disease affecting particularly the nose. Runny nose, sneezing, coughing, fever and sore throat are its symptoms and these can persist for 8-10 days. A person can also suffer with muscle ache, fatigue and loss of appetite. An average adult falls sick due to common cold two to three times a year, whereas for kids the number ranges from six to twelve. Till the date, scientists have not been able to find a cure for common cold and there are no antiviral drugs for it but still antibiotics are frequently prescribed. These antibiotics have no effect against the cold, rather they worsen the condition due to side effects. The few preventive and treatment measures which are known to be cogent are getting plenty of rest, keeping high intake of fluids and gargling with warm salty water.